Gravestone Symbols and Their Hidden Meanings

By Courtney Henderson

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Flower symbols engraved in a gravestone.
A gravestone decorated with carvings of flowers and plants. (Getty Images)

A walk through a cemetery when researching ancestors can be a haunting, yet beautiful and reflective experience. Aside from names, birthdates, and death dates, gravestones are often decorated with symbols and icons.

These majestic, weather-worn stone carvings were popularized by those cipher-loving Victorians (from 1839 to 1920) and are more than pure decoration. They mean something; a virtue the person exemplified, a value they held dear, or a nod to how they earned their living.

In the table below, learn the meanings behind some common (and several uncommon) gravestone symbols. A revelation about your ancestor’s life may just be right in front of you, hidden in plain sight.

A word of caution before we get started, though: tombstone scholars still debate the meanings of certain symbols, so you could find varying interpretations. Don’t forget to grab your free download to common tombstone symbols before you head out on your next research trip!

This handy guide, complete with example photos, helps take the guesswork out of some of the most popular gravestone symbols.

Gravestone Symbols and Their Meanings

Arches and gatespassage into the next life
Acornprosperity; power; triumph; strength; independence
Anchorhope; Navy
AngelsGod’s messengers and guardians; dropping flowers may signify grief, mourning; pointing to heaven may signify rejoicing
Anvil and/or hammerblacksmith
Basketfertility; maternal bond
Bat wingsdeath; misfortune
Beehivepossible membership with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, or the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Benchesmourning; contemplation
Birdflight of the soul
Bookoften the Bible, book of life
Churchministry; possible pastor or minster
Clockmarch of time, usually stopped at hour of death
Clover (three- or four-leafed)Christian trinity; possible Irish ancestry or affiliation with 4H Club
Column and/or pillar (Broken)life cut short; sudden death
Column and/or pillar (Unbroken)a complete and full life
Cornfarming (also frequently symbolized by wheat)
Dovespeace; the Holy Spirit
Elkpossible membership with the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks
Evergreenfaithfulness; remembrance
Feathered headdresspossible membership with the Improved Order of Red Men or Degree of Pocahontas
Fernsincerity; humility; solitude
Forefinger pointing downGod reaching down for the soul
Forefinger pointing upsoul’s passage to Heaven
Fruiteternal plenty
Half-carved tombstonetransition from life to death
Handshakewelcoming of a soul into Heaven; bond between spouses (if hands are feminine and masculine)
Harpworship; music to God
Hearta blissful soul (Colonial era); romantic love (Victorian era to today)
Horsescourage or generosity; possible membership with the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (especially if two-headed)
Hourglass or clockthe passage of time
Keyknowledge; entrance to heaven
Lambspurity, gentleness, innocence (popular on children’s graves)
Lampknowledge; spiritual immortality
Lilyinnocence and purity; resurrection; marriage and fidelity (Calla); innocence and humility (Lily of the Valley)
Marineranchor; sextant
Mortar and pestlemedical profession (pharmacist or doctor)
Oak leafstrength; stability; endurance
Olive treepeace; reconciliation between God and man
Palmlife conquering death; resurrection
Pineappleprosperity; hospitality; perfection
Roselove; beauty; virtue; motherhood; strong bond (intertwined); youthful death (rosebud)
Scalesjustice; law
Shieldprotection, faith, defense of the spirit
Shoes(empty, one overturned) loss of a child
Skulldeath; mortal remains
Soul effigyimmortality of the soul; passage to the afterlife (especially if winged)
Sphinxcourage; honor; power
Thistlesorrow and remembrance; potential Scottish ancestry
Tree-shaped or tree stumplife cut short; sudden death; possible membership with the Modern Woodmen of America or Woodmen of the World
Urndeath of the flesh
Wheatfarming; harvest; prosperity; full life
Winged death’s headmortal remains of the deceased
Willowmourning and earthly sorrow

Headstone Initials and Acronyms

AAONMSAncient Arabic Order or Nobles and the Mystic Shrine (Masonic)
AASRAncient and Accepted Scottish Rite (Masonic)
BPOEBenevolent and Protective Order of Elks
FOEFraternal Order of Eagles
IHC/HISChristian; the first three letters of Jesus’ name in Greek
IOOFIndependent Order of Odd Fellows
K of CKnights of Columbus (Catholic)

Changing Meanings

If you have pictures of tombstones from different parts of the country, you’ll notice regional symbols that evolved as attitudes toward death changed. For instance, the winged death head (a skull with wings), most commonly seen on the graves of New England colonists, is one of the earliest cemetery art forms in America. The Puritans viewed death in its stark reality: It was part of their daily lives, and they believed their salvation was never certain. They had little regard for physical remains, and hastily buried loved ones with minimal ceremony. Although the Puritans grieved privately, they deemed public expressions of sadness inappropriate.

Harriette Merrifield Forbes, author of Gravestones of Early New England, and the Men Who Made Them, 1653-1800, has grouped Colonial and early American symbols from New England into five categories, according to their significance:

• recognition of the flight of time

• the certainty of death and warnings to the living

• the occupation of the deceased or his station in life

• the Christian life

• the resurrection of the body and the activities of the redeemed soul

Beginning in the early 1800s, Americans replaced the winged death head with symbols of mourning, hope and resurrection, as represented by the winged cherub, soul effigy, willows and urns. This transition no doubt stemmed from the Great Awakening revivals of the 1730s and 1740s. The old Calvinistic beliefs of predestination and damnation died, and notions of salvation through good deeds and divine grace took their place. Also during this period, people viewed the deceased as resting in a state of eternal sleep, so they adorned their loved ones’ graves with carved drapery, pillows, chairs, beds, flowers and other objects that would comfort them.

Headstone Materials

By determining the headstone’s composition, you can tell if the marker at your ancestor’s grave is the original or a replacement. Before the 1650s, people used mostly fieldstones or rough-cut rocks to mark graves. A stone from this time might have the deceased’s initials and death year carved on it. From about the 1660s to 1850s, headstones consisted of sedimentary rock, such as red or brown sandstone or limestone, and dark slate. You’ll also see early 1800s gravestones made from a grayish-blue slate. Marble was the stone of choice between the 1830s and 1880s. Since the 1880s, we’ve stuck with granite headstones. That means a granite stone with a pre-1880 death date isn’t the original marker.

A Note on Grave Epitaphs

Epitaphs are short verses or poems written to honor a deceased person, and they are frequently seen on gravestones.

Epitaphs typically reflect living relatives’ feelings toward the deceased, as survivors would select verses from monument makers’ and funeral directors’ catalogs. Occasionally, people would specify what they wanted on their tombstones — such pre-selected epitaphs tend to reflect the decedents’ personalities.

Like funerary art, epitaphs carved on gravestones reveal changing outlooks on death. Colonial verses were meant to provide instruction, not comfort. Here’s a common warning to the living:

Stranger, stop and cast an eye,

As you are now, so once was I,

As I am now, so you shall be,

Prepare for death and follow me.

Generally, families have derived epitaphs from popular or favorite poems, other classic literary works such as Shakespeare’s, and holy scriptures or prayers. As Americans came to favor more-comforting verses, scripture passages and prayers for mercy became the most common types of epitaphs.

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